Interesting Resources

By researching avant garde art movements of the 20th Century, I came across some amazing resources that I would like to share:

Tate’s online resources are vast, from dada to colour theory, you just need to rummage a bit.  They provide detailed information with lectures, papers, theories and research.

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Another resource is Graphic Design History:

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This site gives condensed insight into select topics that are sometimes overlooked such as avant garde typography.  It is very useful if you are looking for specific information.

If you are into Dada, the University of Iowa has a Dada archive with lots of information including complete periodicals, books and leaflets available to download.

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Interesting Resources

Just a note

I thought I should mention that I bought a new book that should have useful information about my topic.

This very heavy book is called “30,000 Years of Art” and it is published by Phaidon.  I have the revised copy printed in 2015.

The actual reason I ‘thought’ of mentioning this new addition is that under fluorescent light………………


………… looks like this!!!!!!!

Just a note

The History of DIY in relation to art and graphic design

I find it surprising that there is very little information on this topic.  Before the 19th century this specific subject seems obsolete with a few mentions here and there.  DIY is however associated with counter- and subcultures as well as art movements.  But again, academic literature seems to focus on the Hippy counterculture of the 1960’s onward when in fact, these non-traditional methods of creating started many, many years ago.

Science fiction fanzines as early as 1930 are documented.  These fanzines contained handwritten text and illustrations, both of which are DIY techniques.

Comet1-s_copyThe Comet, 1st issue 1930

ZineWiki provided this image, it can be found at:

In light of this, I will focus my historic references on the 20th century so that I am able to look at different movements and subcultures respectively to assess whether they had a DIY ethos.

The History of DIY in relation to art and graphic design

Points to discuss in my essay

I just finished my essay plan –

Another mindmap, some thinking and some research produced the following 6 preliminary points that I will discuss:

  • What is DIY and how does it relate to my practices 

DIY is an interesting subject to explore, it essentially means producing content without guidance from professionals and, as such, dates back to ancient times.  Although I will not be discussing the history to this level of detail, it is still an interesting subject to explore. In previous posts I have covered how Punk Rock DIY relates to my own practices.

  • Why is DIY closely associated with Punk Rock, discuss visual impact

Another interesting subject, why is DIY almost solely associated with Punk Rock when so many other movements employed this work ethic?  Mainstream media make us forget that Sci Fi fanzines were produced as early as 1930.

Visual impact relates to the methods used and it produce powerful messages.  My discussion will include the following:

A view of art and design movements that employed DIY (further discussed below) and what impact they had by using the technique.  How this visual chaos influenced Punk Rock and in turn how Punk Rock influence powerful contemporary works.

  • Other art and design movements that employed DIY

I will concentrate on a broad overview of movements that will provide context of the DIY work ethic..

  • How did these movements relate to and influence Punk Rock

This point is self-explanatory

  • How is Punk Rock DIY still relevant and adapted to contemporary practices

Discussing contemporary practices and how technology influence the DIY work ethic will be looked at.  I will look at existing practitioners and hopefully contact a couple to discuss how they are influenced by DIY and Punk Rock.

With social media, desktop publishing, 3D printing… the possibilities of DIY practices are endless…. In addition I will discuss visual impact again and why it is relevant to contemporary practices as well as my own practices.

  • Longevity of Punk Rock DIY, future insight

This point is a conclusion of my findings.  I should have established what motivates artists and designers to use DIY methods and why does this style have such a great ‘voice’.






Points to discuss in my essay

Back from my mid-semester break!

Hallo again!  So I have had a bit of a break and wow has it been emotional!  Not essay related but very important to me, so I will add some detail:  I have pet rabbits that are my babies and one developed seizures.  He is sleeping at very expensive 24/7 vets for now because he had an MRI today, all other tests came back negative.  It has been a very tiring few weeks with intensive bunny care but anything for my boy!

So, back to the essay!  Can you remember my chosen title?  In case you don’t :



So here we go! Stay tuned…..


Back from my mid-semester break!

Another 6 ……

Firstly I would like to note that these are not the only references I will be consulting, however they are my initial definite sources of information.

So lets proceed:

Ian P. Moran’s journal article ‘Punk: The Do-It-Yourself Subculture’, published in the Social Sciences Journal issue 10(1) 

This article place focus on the DIY ethos of Punk Rock and how DIY methods were used to create social networks that contributed to the endurance of the subculture.  Moran interviews ‘participating’ punks to obtain authentic results for his study.  Additionally Moran looks at the origins of DIY and the role of changing technologies on DIY, both of which are key areas of interest to me.


Another journal article by Jeff Paris and Michael Ault.  The article ‘Subcultures and Political Resistance appeared in the Peace Review, issue 16 (4) in 2004

The article investigates different views on the study of subcultures along with factors that need to be considered when researching subcultures.  My research will benefit from this fresh view that illuminates potential themes that I can investigate such as; the influence of Situationism on Punk Rock and the purpose of subcultures in general.  Some flaws in Hebdige’s (2002) theories that only became apparent after the dissolutions of various predominant subcultures give me additional perspective.  The growing political force of contemporary subcultures is also of particular interest to me because I can convert this phenomenon and apply it to contemporary visual practices.


Punk Rock: So What? The Cultural Legacy of Punk by Roger Sabin, Published by Routledge in 1999

p r so what

The writer want to reposition Punk Rock as set in history because he felt that many common assumptions of Punk Rock is erroneous.  Sabin feels that academic writings on Punk Rock stems from a very narrow point of view and is romanticised. The book therefore contains a combination of reputable perspectives on Punk Rock.  Sabin also challenge disagreements regarding the subculture by evidencing his views.  I think this book gives me alternative views as opposed to academic writing on the topic and it will help me approach my essay with an open mind.


England’s Dreaming. Sex Pistols and Punk Rock by John Savage, published by Faber and Faber in 2005

england dream

This book a nostalgic look at Punk Rock through interviews and memories and mostly focussed on the Sex Pistols.  John Savage was one of the key players in the British Punk movement and this book is one of the main resources of Punk Rock writings.  I value the ‘insider’ angle but I am also aware that the views relayed are narrow and often controversial.  Savage additionally relays information on the DIY ethos, the attitudes and politics of the time which is helpful to me.


Fanzines by Teal Triggs, Published by Thames & Hudson Ltd. in 2010


This book is an visual assembly of over 750 fanzines dated from the origins of the phenomenon up until 2010 when the book was published.  This is a fascinating history of DIY techniques that allows me to evaluate the methods that was and is still being used to produce fanzines.  Basic information alongside images gives me a bit of insight into specific ‘publications’ as well as context regarding specific subcultures and movements that gave birth to specific fanzines.  The book provides context to critically evaluate the origins and influence of the Punk Rock DIY ethic.


Art & Outrage: Provocation, Controversy and the Visual Arts by John A. Walker, published by Pluto Press in 1999

art and outr copy

Walker discusses shocking artwork that spurred public protest.  Specific case studies are presented through which I can examine the underlying ideologies and circumstances that encouraged the need to produce shocking material.  Research on political motivations and the aspiration to contribute to social change through disgraceful material, helps me to objectively form opinions on Punk Rock.  Furthermore, the role of mass media is discussed, it relates to contemporary practices of the DIY work ethic that will be addressed in my essay.


Another 6 ……

Another 5 References

The Story of Art by Ernst H. Gombrich, the 16th edition, published by Phaidon Press Limited in 2003

DSC_1149 story of art

Professor Sir Ernst Gombrick was a multi-award winning art historian.  He created a concise history of art that is written in plain language.  Art history is rationally structured and classified by way of period, style and artists.

I am interested in the beginnings of DIY practices and the motivation behind it, which pertains to the artists and art movements who deviated from conventional traditions and methods of creating.  Through Gombrick’s documentation, I can track and evaluate artistic practices and motivations.  Unfortunately not all of the art movements during the 20th century are discussed but I have consulted the following website to fill the gaps:


This website:


This site concentrates on artists, art movements and styles between  1850-1980.  Information is again relayed in a comprehensive but basic manner to be easily understood.


Typographic Communications Today by Edward M. Gottschall, printed by MIT Press in 1989

DSC_0236 copy


Edward M. Gottschall, encompasses international evolution of typography in the 20th century in one exhaustive reference book for designers.  He considers the role that art movements, politics and attitudes had on typography which helps me to track the transformation of type and typography practices that had an influence on Punk Rock.  The influence of modern technology, which had a direct impact on DIY,  is also investigated.  This book is a very interesting read and I most certainly recommend it to anyone with an interest in typography.


Subculture: The Meaning of Style by Dick Hebdige, Published by Taylor & Francis e-library in 2002


My essay would not be complete without investigating Dick Hebdige’s theories.  Hebdige is famous for his academic research on subcultures and specifically his work on Punk Rock.

In this book Hebdige pays attention to the significance of icons and style in youth subcultures.  This reference is significant because Hepdige offers an academic view of Punk Rock, examines semiotics involved and discusses the connection between ideology and manifestation.  Hebdige’s model of investigation is also useful to me because I can apply it to other subcultures and art movements that I will be looking at when writing my essay.


Sarah Hyndman’s article called ‘How Punk Changed Graphic Design’ written in 2013 

The article is straight forward and the title self-expalantory.  I can use this information as a guide to work from.








Another 5 References