Another 5 References

The Story of Art by Ernst H. Gombrich, the 16th edition, published by Phaidon Press Limited in 2003

DSC_1149 story of art

Professor Sir Ernst Gombrick was a multi-award winning art historian.  He created a concise history of art that is written in plain language.  Art history is rationally structured and classified by way of period, style and artists.

I am interested in the beginnings of DIY practices and the motivation behind it, which pertains to the artists and art movements who deviated from conventional traditions and methods of creating.  Through Gombrick’s documentation, I can track and evaluate artistic practices and motivations.  Unfortunately not all of the art movements during the 20th century are discussed but I have consulted the following website to fill the gaps:


This website:


This site concentrates on artists, art movements and styles between  1850-1980.  Information is again relayed in a comprehensive but basic manner to be easily understood.


Typographic Communications Today by Edward M. Gottschall, printed by MIT Press in 1989

DSC_0236 copy


Edward M. Gottschall, encompasses international evolution of typography in the 20th century in one exhaustive reference book for designers.  He considers the role that art movements, politics and attitudes had on typography which helps me to track the transformation of type and typography practices that had an influence on Punk Rock.  The influence of modern technology, which had a direct impact on DIY,  is also investigated.  This book is a very interesting read and I most certainly recommend it to anyone with an interest in typography.


Subculture: The Meaning of Style by Dick Hebdige, Published by Taylor & Francis e-library in 2002


My essay would not be complete without investigating Dick Hebdige’s theories.  Hebdige is famous for his academic research on subcultures and specifically his work on Punk Rock.

In this book Hebdige pays attention to the significance of icons and style in youth subcultures.  This reference is significant because Hepdige offers an academic view of Punk Rock, examines semiotics involved and discusses the connection between ideology and manifestation.  Hebdige’s model of investigation is also useful to me because I can apply it to other subcultures and art movements that I will be looking at when writing my essay.


Sarah Hyndman’s article called ‘How Punk Changed Graphic Design’ written in 2013 

The article is straight forward and the title self-expalantory.  I can use this information as a guide to work from.








Another 5 References

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