Another 6 ……

Firstly I would like to note that these are not the only references I will be consulting, however they are my initial definite sources of information.

So lets proceed:

Ian P. Moran’s journal article ‘Punk: The Do-It-Yourself Subculture’, published in the Social Sciences Journal issue 10(1) 

This article place focus on the DIY ethos of Punk Rock and how DIY methods were used to create social networks that contributed to the endurance of the subculture.  Moran interviews ‘participating’ punks to obtain authentic results for his study.  Additionally Moran looks at the origins of DIY and the role of changing technologies on DIY, both of which are key areas of interest to me.


Another journal article by Jeff Paris and Michael Ault.  The article ‘Subcultures and Political Resistance appeared in the Peace Review, issue 16 (4) in 2004

The article investigates different views on the study of subcultures along with factors that need to be considered when researching subcultures.  My research will benefit from this fresh view that illuminates potential themes that I can investigate such as; the influence of Situationism on Punk Rock and the purpose of subcultures in general.  Some flaws in Hebdige’s (2002) theories that only became apparent after the dissolutions of various predominant subcultures give me additional perspective.  The growing political force of contemporary subcultures is also of particular interest to me because I can convert this phenomenon and apply it to contemporary visual practices.


Punk Rock: So What? The Cultural Legacy of Punk by Roger Sabin, Published by Routledge in 1999

p r so what

The writer want to reposition Punk Rock as set in history because he felt that many common assumptions of Punk Rock is erroneous.  Sabin feels that academic writings on Punk Rock stems from a very narrow point of view and is romanticised. The book therefore contains a combination of reputable perspectives on Punk Rock.  Sabin also challenge disagreements regarding the subculture by evidencing his views.  I think this book gives me alternative views as opposed to academic writing on the topic and it will help me approach my essay with an open mind.


England’s Dreaming. Sex Pistols and Punk Rock by John Savage, published by Faber and Faber in 2005

england dream

This book a nostalgic look at Punk Rock through interviews and memories and mostly focussed on the Sex Pistols.  John Savage was one of the key players in the British Punk movement and this book is one of the main resources of Punk Rock writings.  I value the ‘insider’ angle but I am also aware that the views relayed are narrow and often controversial.  Savage additionally relays information on the DIY ethos, the attitudes and politics of the time which is helpful to me.


Fanzines by Teal Triggs, Published by Thames & Hudson Ltd. in 2010


This book is an visual assembly of over 750 fanzines dated from the origins of the phenomenon up until 2010 when the book was published.  This is a fascinating history of DIY techniques that allows me to evaluate the methods that was and is still being used to produce fanzines.  Basic information alongside images gives me a bit of insight into specific ‘publications’ as well as context regarding specific subcultures and movements that gave birth to specific fanzines.  The book provides context to critically evaluate the origins and influence of the Punk Rock DIY ethic.


Art & Outrage: Provocation, Controversy and the Visual Arts by John A. Walker, published by Pluto Press in 1999

art and outr copy

Walker discusses shocking artwork that spurred public protest.  Specific case studies are presented through which I can examine the underlying ideologies and circumstances that encouraged the need to produce shocking material.  Research on political motivations and the aspiration to contribute to social change through disgraceful material, helps me to objectively form opinions on Punk Rock.  Furthermore, the role of mass media is discussed, it relates to contemporary practices of the DIY work ethic that will be addressed in my essay.


Another 6 ……

Another 5 References

The Story of Art by Ernst H. Gombrich, the 16th edition, published by Phaidon Press Limited in 2003

DSC_1149 story of art

Professor Sir Ernst Gombrick was a multi-award winning art historian.  He created a concise history of art that is written in plain language.  Art history is rationally structured and classified by way of period, style and artists.

I am interested in the beginnings of DIY practices and the motivation behind it, which pertains to the artists and art movements who deviated from conventional traditions and methods of creating.  Through Gombrick’s documentation, I can track and evaluate artistic practices and motivations.  Unfortunately not all of the art movements during the 20th century are discussed but I have consulted the following website to fill the gaps:


This website:


This site concentrates on artists, art movements and styles between  1850-1980.  Information is again relayed in a comprehensive but basic manner to be easily understood.


Typographic Communications Today by Edward M. Gottschall, printed by MIT Press in 1989

DSC_0236 copy


Edward M. Gottschall, encompasses international evolution of typography in the 20th century in one exhaustive reference book for designers.  He considers the role that art movements, politics and attitudes had on typography which helps me to track the transformation of type and typography practices that had an influence on Punk Rock.  The influence of modern technology, which had a direct impact on DIY,  is also investigated.  This book is a very interesting read and I most certainly recommend it to anyone with an interest in typography.


Subculture: The Meaning of Style by Dick Hebdige, Published by Taylor & Francis e-library in 2002


My essay would not be complete without investigating Dick Hebdige’s theories.  Hebdige is famous for his academic research on subcultures and specifically his work on Punk Rock.

In this book Hebdige pays attention to the significance of icons and style in youth subcultures.  This reference is significant because Hepdige offers an academic view of Punk Rock, examines semiotics involved and discusses the connection between ideology and manifestation.  Hebdige’s model of investigation is also useful to me because I can apply it to other subcultures and art movements that I will be looking at when writing my essay.


Sarah Hyndman’s article called ‘How Punk Changed Graphic Design’ written in 2013 

The article is straight forward and the title self-expalantory.  I can use this information as a guide to work from.








Another 5 References